Kandungan Saponin Buah, Daun dan Tangkai Daun Belimbing Wuluh (Averrhoa bilimbi L.)
In Indonesia, belimbing wuluh (Averrhoa bilimbi L.) has been used for traditional medicine, especially to heal stiff, mumps, rheumatism, ulcers, acne, tinea versicolor, high blood pressure, and dental pain and cough. This property is predicted comes from its secondary metabolites. Saponin is a compound group of secondary metabolites which is known to have antitussives and expectorants effect, antiinflammatory, antibacterial, and cytotoxic activity for cancer therapy. However, scientific information about the location for saponin accumulation in this plant is still limited. This information is needed for the use of saponin from A. bilimbi for herbal medicines development. The aim of this study was to know the content of saponin in fruits, leaves, and petioles of A. bilimbi. This work was initiated with sampling and preparation of samples, followed by the preliminary tests, including froth test and color test to show the saponin content qualitatively. Saponin was extracted and isolated by maseration using methanol solvent, and by thin layer chromatography (TLC) preparative, respectively. Saponin content was measured by spectrophotometer UV-Vis at 280 nm. Result shows that the highest saponin content, according to the absorbance value, is in the fruit organ. In A. bilimbi, saponin could be accumulated in the generative organ, although saponin synthesis is located in leaves. Based on the production of brown ring with Liebermann Burchard (LB) reagent test, it is suggested that triterpen saponin is the dominant saponin presents in A. bilimbi. Saponin content in A. bilimbi fruits is higher than saponin content in Musa paradisiaca var. sapientum L. stems. Therefore, triterpen saponin from A. bilimbi fruits is promising to be developed as commercial herbal medicines.
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