candi borobudur kerajaan di indonesia

Advocating Pluricentric Model for Teaching English in Indonesia

Hepy Adityarini


The population of people who speak English as an additional language outnumbers those who use English as first language. As it becomes an international language, English is offered as a subject in many countries at various educational institution levels. For many years, British English and American English became the monocentric model and assumed to be the „best‟ reference for the purpose of teaching English around the world. However, nowadays, World Englishes (WEs), English as an International Language (EIL) and English as a Lingua Franca (ELF), scholars have questioned the privilege owned by the speakers of American and British English. Along with this, the contact between local languages and English has shaped the local varieties of English around the globe. This situation raises a question of whether the two privileged models are still relevant. Furthermore, WEs, EIL and ELF scholars believe that each country has its own right to determine which model to be adopted for pedagogical purpose. This belief implies that pluricentric model in which local varieties of English are adopted is eligible for teaching model in the countries where English is used. Indonesia is a country with complex language diversity. It has more than 700 regional languages as the first language and Bahasa Indonesia as the national language for its speakers. As a result of contact between these regional languages as well as Bahasa Indonesia with English, Indonesia has developed multiple layers of local varieties of English. Hence, the pluricentric model in which local varieties are accommodated seems feasible to be adopted for pedagogical purpose in Indonesia. This paper argues that from the perspectives of WEs, EIL and ELF the pluricentric model is suitable to be adopted in Indonesia. In addition, it proposes ways in which pluricentric model can be implemented in teaching English in Indonesia.


pluricentric, monocentric, local varieties, EIL, ELF, Wes

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